What would you tell our sponsors about how Science Buddies helped you with your project? The water was a bit warmer than usual, and as we know from our research temperature can affect the function of an enzyme. Cutting of apples was extremely time-consuming Can you suggest any improvements or ideas? Also, the older the apple pulp is, the easier it is to obtain juice, due to the Pectin becoming progressively soluble and softening the tissue. They had also not tested the production of apple juice when both cellulase and pectinase were added into the applesauce. I have predicted this as the optimum temperature of Pectinase is 30oC and so the enzyme will be working at its most efficient, producing a larger yield of juice. I will then weigh out the correct amount of Apple Pulp by placing it in the beaker. The enzymes should also be handled carefully to avoid spillages, however if these occur, they should be promptly wiped away and distilled water used to wash the area thoroughly in order to avoid contamination. It also allows them to be fed food that has not been processed too much, and costs less.
Pectin is a polysaccharide, so by adding pectinase the units are broken down into monosaccharides. Objective The goal of this project is to monitor enzyme activity by measuring the amount of apple juice released by pectinase. Pectinase is used commercially to aid in extracting juice from fruit. Results: Observations: During the 10 minutes of filtration, I observed that the apple juice came out of the pectinase faster than the rest of the enzymes. I will also have to ensure care is taken when using the knife to chop the apple. After the waiting period, we take observations of the results, and measure the amounts of liquid in the petri dishes and pipets by pouring it into the 25ml graduated cylinder, and write down the results on our data chart. Pectinase - 8 drops 3.
This will be recorded and the balance ripped. There are different types of enzymes that our produced by the body, for different types of food. Yes, the procedure says to add pectinase solution to pieces of fruit and then take the volume of the filtered liquid. I just wanted to test rate of enzymatic activity in relation to temperature. An enzyme is a biological catalyst meaning it speeds up chemical reactions in living things. Initial rate of reaction The initial rate of reaction is the rate during the first time interval.
I think the Apple Pulp and distilled water will produce only a small amount of fruit juice as there will be no enzyme present to act as a catalyst in the reaction and a natural inhibitor will also be present. Its pH is right in the middle, so that wouldn't affect the data either. Also, the materials list didn't make much sense and added a lot of extra materials which made the proicedure even more confusing because there were so many types of cups that you didn't even need and then when deciding which cup to use, it just made everything even harder. If this condition was not controlled, the Pectinase may not be provided with enough time to digest all the Pectin and so there may be traces of the carbohydrate remaining. To do this I must keep the apparatus clean, using distilled water if I need to reuse the equipment, as this will limit the chance of transferring enzymes from one experiment to another for example. Record your results in Table 2.
Introduction The enzyme Pectinase has been used in the production of fruit juice for three decades; this is because it effectively digests the Pectin, found in the fibres of Apple Pulp. They are also sold as for humans to aid digestion. A molecule that binds to another location on the enzyme, causing a conformational change at the active site is called an allosteric inhibitor. The Pectinase is measured into 1 ml, 2 ml, and 3 ml, equaling 6 ml. The fuel or energy that the body uses comes from the food and drink that we consume in our diet. This matching of active site to substrate is sometimes compared to a lock and key, where the keyhole is the active site, and the key is the substrate.
Do you think that these enzymes would increase juice production? The reason we used water as our control was because water doesn't contain any enzymes in it. The results conclude that more juice was produced with an enzyme than without one. What problems did you encounter? This breakdown can cause total degradation of the tissue, such as when a potato gets soft rot. The perfect thing to liven up a rainy day, school vacation, or moment of boredom. In my experiment I will use only the enzyme Pectinase, however I will also use distilled water, which will act as a control. Improving nutrition improves production, therefore reduceing the impact of livestock on the environment by reducing the number of animals needed. However the rate can be reduced when considering an inhibitor.
Record in the table below. The water may have diluted whatever traces of enzymes there were in it, and therefore it may have not been as strong. After that time, I will use a burette, filter and filter paper to accurately measure the amount of fruit juice produced. Use water to moisten the cheese cloth so that it sticks to the sides of the funnel. The first enzyme we used was pectinase. It's because they can speed up a wide variety of chemical reactions, and chemists and biologists use enzymes to do all kinds of jobs. I have chosen to use this method in my experiment as I think it will be the most effective.
Volume mL Treatment Start 5 min 10 min 15 min 20 min 25 min 30 min 1 2 3 4 5 6 Graphic analysis of data Using the data from Table 1, draw one graph showing the results of treatments 1, 3, and 4, and a second graph of the results of treatments 1, 5, and 6. Poor What is your enthusiasm for science after doing your project? Plus, since the fruit pieces are supposed to be submerged in a pectinase solution, it would be a liquid anyway. You may also be able to find it locally at a store with home winemaking supplies. Record the amount of juice in each cylinder at 5 min intervals. For example for pectinase they had gotten about 15. This essay is, however, an excellent example of the value of carrying out controls alongside the experimental tubes since without these, it would be difficult to assess the validity of the results.
Use the knife to cut the Apple up into smaller pieces and weigh it out to be slightly more than I need before putting it in the blender. Scientists may come up with the overarching plans, but the day-to-day labor behind biotechnology advances is often the work of skilled biological technicians. Different types of pectic enzymes vary in how they degrade , a long polysaccharide of sugars that forms a gel. From previous research we know that pH and concentration affects enzyme function, and it is possible that the water could have altered the pH level of the enzyme and the concentration of the enzyme. In this project, you can apply pectinase to fruit under controlled experimental conditions in order to investigate the enzyme activity of pectinase. Predict what may have happened in a treatment that was kept much colder than room temperature, e.