These Councils had no control over the administration or finance, let alone defence or foreign policy. British rulers generally encouraged communal difference through these reserved seats, as the Muslim candidates did not have to appeal for Hindu votes and vice versa. Also they could vote separate items in the budget but the budget as a whole could not be voted upon. The enlargement of the legislatures furthered the demand of complete indianization of the legislature. Deepak Thorat May 7, 2015 Indian council act 1909 The British Paramountacy enacted the Indian Council Act 1909 to carry forward the process of constitutional development.
After the split of moderates and the extremists in Surat, Lucknow pact can be termed as an important act which brought both moderates and extremists together. The Councils themselves allowed only some powers of discussion, pulling of questions and sponsoring of resolutions. After the Bengal uprising following the partition, the British authorities understood the need for some reforms in the governance of Indians. A revolutionary movement, wide in its appeal and full of idealism, generated an incompatibility in the traditional relations between ruler and ruled. This book, first published in 1964 and drawing extensively on the private papers of the main protagonists, examines the years of Indian administration directed by Morley and Minto.
But very few Indians had received an opportunity to be admitted. Some constituencies were earmarked for Muslims and only Muslims could vote their representatives. But however after the war the Indians were thoroughly depressed by the behaviour of the British. They could also discuss matters of public interest. Half of the members should be Indians. The elected members were to be indirectly elected.
Government, on one hand wanted to suppress the extremists but on other hand wanted to pacify the moderates. The moderates thought that it was their duty to help and support British during the war. मार्ले मिंटो सुधार ने भारत की परिषद की शक्तियों में कोई खास बदलाव नहीं किए के बाद बनाई गई बुनियादी हुकूमत अभी भी अपने ही रूप से काम कर रही थी उसमें कोई खास बदलाव नहीं हुआ था सुधार में एकमात्र महत्वपूर्ण बदलाव आया हुआ था कि सरकार ने भारतीयों को उनकी पसंद के अनुसार कुछ उच्च पदों पर नियुक्त करने लगी थी सत्येंद्र प्रसाद सिन्हा लार्ड सिन्हा गवर्नर जनरल की कार्यकारी परिषद के सदस्य बनने वाले पहले भारतीय थे। कालांतर में बंगाल के विभाजन पर रोक लगा दी गई और भारत की राजधानी कोलकाता से दिल्ली परिवर्तित की गई, यह भी मार्ले-मिंटो सुधारों के प्रभाव और परिणाम के रूप में जाना जाता है. Because of this political funda Hindu-Muslim unity was affected and freedom movement was stopped which ultimately delay Independence by 25—30 yrs. This article talks about Morley-Minto Reforms. And also the constituency was limited to specific classes of Indian nationals.
Also, the income qualification for Muslim voters was kept lower than that for Hindus. Merits of Minto-Morley Reforms Nevertheless, the Minto-Morley Reforms had some of their merits. Morley, the Secretary of State for India. Indian Council Act 1892 and Morley Minto Reforms 1909- 1857 की क्रांति के बाद भारतीयों में राष्ट्रवाद की भावना व राजनैतिक चेतना का विकास हुआ जिसके परिणाम स्वरुप अंग्रेजी प्रशासन में भारतीयों को स्थान देने का दबाव बढ़ने लगा। में इसकी कोशिश की गई थी किन्तु भारतीय इससे संतुष्ट नही थे, जिसका परिणाम था सन 1885 में भारतीय राष्ट्रीय कांग्रेस की स्थापना। इसने संवैधानिक सुधारों की माँग की, जिसके फलस्वरूप ब्रिटिश संसद ने 1892 में भारत परिषद अधिनियम पास किया। याद रखें भारतीय राष्ट्रीय कांग्रेस की स्थापना अंग्रेजों ने Safety Valve Policy सेफ्टी वाल्व पालिसी के तहत अंग्रेजों एवं भारतीयों के बीच बातचीत में मध्यस्थता करने हेतु की थी। इसकी स्थापना A. Only some members like Gokhale put to constructive use the opportunity to debate in the councils by demanding universal primary education, attacking repressive policies and drawing attention to the plight of indentured labour and Indian workers in South Africa.
It recognized the Muslim community as a separate section of the India and triggered the cancer of Hindu-Muslim disharmony which ultimately culminated in the partition. What the people of India demanded was that there should be set up a responsible government in the country. The reforms established Indian dominance in the provincial, but not central, legislative bodies. The Lucknow pact had a huge impact on Hindus and Muslim. This article was last updated on Sunday, June 01, 2003. Rules were also framed under the act for the discussion of matters of general public interest in the legislative councils.
Further, though non-official majority was given in the Provincial Councils, the practical result was nothing. Both the Viceroy and the Secretary of State for India decided to work out some scheme to reform the Legislative councils. Due to this many nationalist were imprisoned and were executed without doing any trial. Besides, system of election was too indirect and it gave the impression of infiltration of legislators through a number of sieves. For legislative purpose 33 members indirect election i. The effects of differential treatment of different religious groups can be seen to this day. The culmination of this step was seen in the partition of the country along religious lines.
The number of members in the Central Legislative Council was raised from 16 to 60. It was modified by the Government of India Act 1912, to clarify the authority of the Governor of Bengal, to create a legislative council for the new province of Bihar and Orissa, to dispense with Parliamentary review of the creation of new legislative councils for provinces under a lieutenant-governor and to permit the creation of legislative councils in provinces under chief commissioners. The number of elected members in the Imperial Legislative Council and the Provincial Legislative Councils was increased. Minto heard in October 1906 a Muslim deputation which comprised 35 Muslims from all Indian provinces except the Northwest Frontier. The Central Government exercised vast authority in the financial sphere. It gave some further avenues to Indians to ventilate their grievances. A committee was appointed by the Government of India to propose a scheme of reforms.
They were also entitled to ask supplementary questions during the legislative proceedings. The local bodies, trade unions and universities were allowed to elect their members. This initiated a series of correspondence between him and Lord Minto, who was the then Governor General of India. The Indian Councils Act 1909 was an act of the British Parliament that introduced a few reforms in the legislative councils and increased the involvement of Indians limitedly in the governance of British India. A History of India 1st ed. The Bande Mataram Slogan was banned.