It did indeed draw bitter condemnation, mostly out of fear of an impending war. It would be hard work to reconcile the view of the Prussians, Bavarians and Dutch, who each wanted territorial compensation. He arrived on 10 April to a city at peace and, much to his annoyance, largely in the control of Tsar Alexander. Order alone can produce freedom. His mother saw that he was fluent in both German and French; as an adult, he was often happier expressing himself in French. Each law in turn is made by circumstances predominant, and the limits of nature give power to but one at a time.
When Napoleon's armies invaded Russia in 1812, Metternich ignored calls for help from Tsar Alexander I. He disliked and strove to prevent the breakup of the Austrian Empire, for example, by crushing revolts in Austrian north Italy. These leadership characteristics would be absent from the Versailles talks at the end of the First World War, but would reappear almost a century and a half later at the end of the Second. Metternich was uncertain whether to use this as a pretext for clamping down on the German universities, or for furthering Austria's will in the Federal Diet. He succeeded in creating a German Confederation under Austrian leadership and was broadly satisfied with the degree to which Austria was influential in the Italian peninsula.
He had known the Tsar well and his death reminded him of his own fallibility, though it did potentially wipe the soured diplomatic slate clean. Metternich was a conservative, who favored traditional, even autocratic, institutions over what he saw as their radical alternatives, such as democratic systems, if the establishment of the latter meant, as they often did, the violent overthrow of the former. At home, he pursued a similar policy, using and a wide ranging spy network to dampen down unrest. A , Metternich was keen to maintain the , in particular by resisting Russian territorial ambitions in Central Europe and the declining. Metternich was delighted when Frankfurt was retaken in early November and, in particular, the deference the Tsar showed to Francis at a Metternich-organised ceremony in the city. Metternich sought to form a coalition with Viscount Castlereagh and Hardenberg, the Prussian chancellor, to oppose Alexander's plans for a constitutional Kingdom of Poland under Russia's rule. Metternich accompanied the Austrian archduchess Marie Louise who had given her consent in the interests of the House of Austria to Paris in March 1810 after the marriage had been celebrated by proxy in Vienna but nonetheless intended that Austria would renew the war with Napoleonic France when the circumstances were favourable to an Austrian success.
Darton, Longman, and Todd, 1962. According to Wikipedia, Metternich's birth religion Not Found. Darton, Longman, and Todd, 1962. At the Congress of Vienna, he also worked to create confederations in both Germany where he succeeded and Italy where he failed. For once it was Metternich who played the liberal, calling for the region to be given some autonomy, but Francis turned him down.
What Metternich feared most was that the liberal and national ideas would tear apart the multinational Habsburg Empire, causing each nationality under Habsburg rule to go its own way and establish its own separate government. Metternich saw nationalism and liberalism as serious threats to the survival of the Austrian Empire and tried to suppress both. His father was then the Austrian envoy to the Rhenish principalities of the empire, and Metternich spent his youth in the Rhine-Moselle region, for which he retained a lifelong affection. He condemned, however, the repressive measures by which the police minister tried to achieve these aims. Italy had more than ten governments. In time the onset of winter forced the badly provisioned Napoleonic armies to attempt to travel across many hundreds of miles, in the early weeks of a Russian winter, whilst being harassed by the forces of the Tsar.
Austria never regained the land gained in the partition of Poland. He succeeded in creating a German Confederation under Austrian leadership and was broadly satisfied with the degree to which Austria was influential in the Italian peninsula. I need honour and glory. He had precise ideas about the basis for a new order in Europe but knew from the start that he would have to modify them substantially if he was to salvage even a small part of his plans against the opposition of self-interested princes. Prussia was a power from the time it became a kingdom, through its predecessor, Brandenburg-Prussia. Peace externally depended on the balance of power, on no nation being too powerful either militarily or economically. Between 1804 and 1807, he defeated Spain, Austria, and Prussia a large state in northern Germany ; he also pressured Russian tsar Alexander I into signing a nonaggression treaty.
In this time period, Europe became the dominant economic and military power in the world. Resignation The marked the end of Metternich's career. October's conveniently created the need for the to sort out compensation for the families who had just had the annexation of their estates made permanent. Only trifles are serious for him; and serious business he treats as a trifle. He also enjoyed a visit from Frederick William, though the king irritated Metternich by appearing to nurture him as a tool against Schwarzenberg.
Both Russia and Prussia, in fact, were held in check by the common front of Austria, England, and France that Metternich had created. The fall and dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire was accelerated by French intervention in the Empire in September 1805, on 20 October 1805, an Austrian army led by general Karl Mack von Leiberich was defeated by French armies near the town of Ulm. The North German Confederation was seen as more of an alliance of military strength in the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War, the German Empire lasted from 1871—1918 with the successful unification of all the German states under Prussian hegemony. Metternich wanted stability, not revolution. The creation of a thousand forests is in one acorn, and Egypt, Greece, Rome, Gaul, Britain, America, lie folded already in the first man. Resisting all ill-considered projects, in particular those of the archduke who was put under for planning a premature anti-French rising in the Alps , Metternich firmly adhered to neutrality while Austria secretly rearmed.
Yet Metternich could never overcome the objections of his strictly absolutist emperor. Klemens Wenzel von Metternich Portrait of Prince Metternich c. His first mission was to play for time and to distance from the Russian tsar. His real aim, he said, was to avoid the chaos that he believed would follow in the wake of the major political changes demanded by European revolutionaries. He had therefore to walk a tightrope of diplomacy where both Napoleon and the Tsar were broadly happy with Austrian policy. . This defeat was followed by the agreement of a Treaty of Schönbrunn of October 1809 that was most humiliating to Austria costing her extensive territories and a huge financial indemnity.
I have nothing more to do, nothing more to discuss. Metternich, the Coachman of Europe: Statesman or Evil Genius? On October 8, 1809, the emperor Francis at that time but no longer Holy Roman emperor appointed Metternich minister of foreign affairs. In September 1795 Metternich married Eleonore, Gräfin von Kaunitz, heiress and granddaughter of the former Austrian state Wenzel Anton, Graf von Kaunitz. He believed that conserving traditional institutions was the best strategy to deliver this. He is a very strong man, and in the different setting of another age, he would have become a very great man.