Statistical information regarding agriculture and allied occupations, and household enterprises is not available. However, income received in the form of transfer payments are not included. Income method is used for the service sectors including trade, commerce, transport and government services. Operating surplus Corporate Income It includes rent, profit and interest. Note that all three counting methods should in theory give the same final figure. Even the statistical information regarding the enterprises in the organised sector is sketchy and unreliable.
There are three alternative methods of measuring national income. Such changes make it difficult to compare the value of output in one year with that of another year. It was therefore not possible to construct a consistent series of national income and assess the performance of the economy over a period of time. Indirect taxes are, however, not a point of actual cost of production. Personal Incomes: National income is not the sum of all personal incomes.
Such incomes are termed as mixed incomes. However, availability of adequate and appropriate data is relatively more important considerations in selecting a method of estimating national income. Three strategies have been used to obtain the market values of all the goods and services produced: the product or output method, the expenditure method, and the income method. Measurement of national income through income method involves the following main steps: 1. The governments adopt and execute various plans on the basis of national income estimates.
In some estimates of national income, the estimators have deviated from the traditional practice and have instead as some ratio of the current output of final goods. This approach is also called as income distributed approach. If the objective is to analyse the net output or value added, the net output method is more suitable. Since factor incomes arise from the production of goods and services, and since incomes are spent on goods and services produced, three alternative methods of measuring national income are possible. For these different phases, the four different method of measuring national income is done by: a Product Method b Income Method c Expenditure Method d Value Added Method You May Also Read: Product Method of Measuring National Income Under this Method of measuring national income, the total production of all the goods and services, produced in an year in a country is added to reach an aggregate value from which the value of intermediate goods are deducted so as to avoid double counting. These are transfer incomes since they are not payments for services rendered — there is no contribution to current real output by the recipients.
As all the three methods are used to measure the lame physical output at three phases, namely production, distributions and expenditure, they will provide the same national income. Income from employment item no. This is the retail price and will count as consumption. So if we used 2002 as the base year, then output in 2003 would be recorded as 900 x £1. Problems: However, various measurement problems crop up in practice. Thus, the total factor-incomes are grouped under three categories: i labour incomes; ii capital incomes; and iii mixed incomes.
This is because we have to avoid double counting. Under this, national income is measured by adding incomes earned by all the factors of production during an accounting year. Expenditure Method The expenditure method, is also known as final product method. Item number 3 is to be interpreted in a broad sense. A greatest difficulty in the measurement of national income in the developing countries is general lack of adequate statistical data.
From the value added by each enterprise we subtract consumption of fixed capital i. These adjustments for international transactions are based on the international balance of payments of the nations. All the three sectors of the economy, that is, primary, secondary and tertiary sectors, make the factors that create the demand for final goods and services. These prices differ from the factor cost values by the amount of taxes and subsidies they contain. The market rents of similar properties are used as measuring rod for the imputed rents of premises occupied by their owners.
Primarily there are three methods of measuring national income. Traditionally, at some percentage of capital, permissible under the tax-laws. It explains the causes and consequences of inflation and deflation and their effects on people. Thus, national income may also be obtained by adding the factor earnings and adjusting the sum for indirect taxes and subsidies. This would give us a measure in 2002 of 1500 x £2. The government imposes taxes on some people to pay interest to others.
This method of estimating national income has the great advantage of indicating the distribution of national income among different income groups such as landlords, owners of capital, workers, entrepreneurs. The modern definition includes all the features given by Simon Kuznet. In short, certain goods and services may be provided by a person for himself or herself and it is very difficult to include these in calculations altogether. Value Added Method : This is also called output method or production method. Since L must always ultimately equal J it is a circular flow. If identical goods and services are sold in the market place it is possible to give self-provided goods and services an imputed valuation — an estimate of their values can be included in the national income figures. The impetus for that major statistical effort was the and the rise of , which prescribed a greater role for the government in managing an economy, and made it necessary for governments to obtain accurate information so that their interventions into the economy could proceed as well-informed as possible.