Tense, or the present that influence the majority of another author's research. As noted, the exception to discussing findings in the same order you described them in the results section would be to begin by highlighting the implications of a particularly unexpected or significant finding that emerged from the study, followed by a discussion of the remaining findings. What Is Literary Present Tense? In English, we divide time up into three simple categories-past, present, and future-and we can conjugate verbs to indicate when an action is taking place remember, conjugation means either changing the spelling of a verb or adding helping verbs. When you're writing, you may think of that particular moment as the present, but a person reading that paper days, weeks, or years later is going to think of their moment as the present, and the moment you're writing in as the past. Some Exceptions to the Rules For example, in the following sentence, we use the simple future verb in the if clause: If turmeric will ease my arthritis pain, I will take some every day.
A few historical references may be helpful for perspective, but most of the references should be relatively recent and included to aid in the interpretation of your results or used to link to similar studies. Instead, we're going to go through some general advice that will help you understand how to think about tense and should help you get started off on the right foot. Typically, for the former, using the simple past tense is common, e. Past Perfect describes a past action completed before another. We know how complicated these grammar rules can be! Methodology When to use present tense: In general you want to use the present tense throughout most of your discussion.
It also possible verb tense, present tense, discuss literature. Let's take your example in a little more detail I simplify it a little bit. Think of it this way. He will be leaving at 10 am tomorrow. As such, you should always approach the selection and interpretation of your findings introspectively and to think critically about the possibility of judgmental biases unintentionally entering into discussions about the significance of your work. This is important because comparing and contrasting the findings of other studies helps to support the overall importance of your results and it highlights how and in what ways your study differs from other research about the topic.
However, after additional research they abandoned this position Pegg and Frost, 2010. Overview of tenses and their academic use Tense Common Use in Academics Present Simple The tense most commonly used in academics, since academic study generally concerns what is and is not the case i. Verbs ending in a consonant + y e. The only occasion i use paragraph, frequent reference to assess which text is perfectly acceptable and film. In doing so, there will be situations in which the results of your study or even future studies are based on certain conditions. A good place to start is by drawing a conceptual scheme of the review of related literature, with mind-mapping methods.
Consistency of writing just about this tense tends to write my short story, although if you may be the. Correct: The study ended suddenly because many of the participants had moved away. Future Progressive Not commonly used in academic work see note on Present Progressive. The topic of tense can get pretty complicated; for example, English has dozens of tenses that cover a wide range of situations, from two events both happening at different points in the future to an event that might have happened but is has continued into the present. I used to perform all my reports by myself. Systematically explain the underlying meaning of your findings and state why you believe they are significant. For the methodology and results sections, virtually all academic writing resources agree that the past simple tense is the logical choice, as is the present simple tense for the conclusions.
Give a brief explanation about why you believe the findings and conclusions of your study are important and how they support broader knowledge or understanding of the research problem. A general framework for a great Literature Review format would be: Literature Review represents a critical analysis of academic sources, by explaining, summarizing, comparing and contrasting different ideas on a research topic. If you miss the turn, you have to circle back round to the beginning of time. Past Simple Commonly used in case studies or descriptions of historical events. The present tense is used because the facts are listed as a summary, and the present tense provides a sense of urgency. In other words, avoid unnecessary shifts in verb tense within a paragraph or in adjacent paragraphs to help ensure smooth expression.
The discussion will always connect to the introduction by way of the research questions or hypotheses you posed and the literature you reviewed, but the discussion does not simply repeat or rearrange the first parts of your paper; the discussion clearly explain how your study advanced the reader's understanding of the research problem from where you left them at the end of your review of prior research. Either in the manner in present perfect the tenses tense in the past, but it. I'd recommend the present perfect or the present perfect-progressive. You have exceeded my expectations. She wrote the essay and reread it the next day.
However, in a statement of purpose, a personal statement, or a cover letter, the present perfect tense is commonly used to relate past experience to present abilities, e. However, when writing your research paper, use the past tense to discuss the data collection processes, since the development of ideas or experiments— the process of researching that brings the reader to your ultimate findings—occurred in the past. For example, the next two sentences describe one action followed by another, but each achieves a different rhetorical effect by using different verb forms. Also worth noting, background information is usually described in relation to the present state of knowledge about a subject. However, I still have one question concerning the writing of academic case studies: For historical events throughout the study, I use past tense. This implies I still act. Source: As there are no definite rules of tense usage when , either the past or the present tense can be used for example, it may seem prudent to discuss the literature in line with contemporary arguments rather than as accepted facts.
Prior to the interviews, the students responded to a brief questionnaire. I turn and run back to No. You might present your conclusions as likelihoods that something has already happened, is currently happening, or will happen at some point. . If applicable, begin this part of the section by repeating what you consider to be your most significant or unanticipated finding first, then systematically review each finding. Verb tenses, then, are used by academic writers to reference the literal as separate from the literary. It's a summer's day--perhaps this is the very first summer after we moved in when I'm not yet three.