Present the results of your experiment s in a sequence that will logically support or provide evidence against the hypothesis, or answer the question, stated in the Introduction. What knowledge are we hoping to gain from this experiment? At this point the problems should be reduced to one issue as far as possible. Include the date s of the study e. Consider that you have likely already written about this dispute as background research in your Introduction. In the end, read the entire paper and fix all mistakes.
It is important that you clearly distinguish your results from your discussion. You should set out your basic principles before embarking upon the experiment: any research will be built around some assumptions. For example, did you use mouse pups or adults? Precise word use is critical : Scientific terminology carries specific meaning - learn to use it appropriately and use it consistently. Do this by using key words from your in the first few sentences of the Introduction to get it focused directly on topic at the appropriate level. In addition, your and will refer back to the introduction, and this is easier if you have a clearly defined problem. Describe your experimental design clearly.
The methods should be described clearly and anyone with the proper training should be able to replicate your experiments based on this section. Regarding the form a hypothesis should have, it is a good idea to try to avoid being fancy or overly complicated — here the clarity is what is important, not an inventive style. A review is meant to be a survey of the current state of a field - and the less you know about a field or topic at the outset, the more work you're going to have to do in order to have an authoritative voice that can provide insight about the research that has been done. Table is never abbreviated, e. Introduction and Review of Literature The introduction is one of the more difficult portions of the manuscript to write.
Focus on the value of your research paper, its strong sides, and uniqueness. Knowing your audience helps you to decide what information to include--you would write a very different article for a narrow, highly technical, disciplinary journal vs. Use the past tense, as well, when referring to the work of others that you may cite. Broadly speaking, individuals perusing a scientific hypothesis have an obligation to the rest of the scientific community to report the findings of their research, especially if these make a contribution to or contradict previous ideas. We suggest mentioning a few keywords in your first sentences. Appendices are places where you put information that does not deserve to be included in the report itself but may be helpful to some readers who want to know more about the details.
The title should explain, as specifically as possible, what your research project is about. Write your Abstract using concise, but complete, sentences, and get to the point quickly. Also, invest some time to consider the best way to organize the data before you have to start recording it. We will continue by explicitly drawing connections between each component of a lab report to the scientific method, and then provide the rationale regarding how and why you must elaborate the respective section. Occasionally, gates do not give even a glimpse of the city, and it can mislead the visitors about inner sections of the city.
When you set up the display for your project one section should be focused on the same materials in your introduction. This insures that you get to the primary subject matter quickly without losing focus, or discussing information that is too general. One part should focus on the experiment both the process and results. Every scientific paper is structured the same way. We will consider each part individually.
The main audience for scientific papers is extremely specialized. Ý The rule of thumb in constructing this section is to provide enough detail so that a competent scientist in the field can repeat, or replicate, the procedure. Many journals have a citation format that you can download and import into the reference manager that will update all of your references to the format required for that journal. Review articles are particularly useful because they summarize all the research done on a narrow subject area over a brief period of time a year to a few years in most cases. Finally, our recommendations for solution should be described, in other words our aim should be communicated. Occasionally after you have performed a study or experiment, you become cognizant that some components of the methods you employed to test your hypothesis were flawed. A bibliography contains references that you may have read but have not specifically cited in the text.
This part of the paper is aimed to persuade your readers that your study is important and useful. If you wish to summarize—and often you must—do so in fresh language. The purpose of these papers is twofold: to present information so that it is easy to retrieve, and to present enough information that the reader can duplicate the scientific study. Results should be reported neutrally and reference any tables and figures included in the paper. However, the most common figure, particularly for undergraduates, is the line graph, so this is what we will focus on here.