Fortunately, the patient's chest x-ray is clear, and lung cancer is not suspected. Furthermore, interventions based on the health belief model may provide cues to action to remind and encourage individuals to engage in health-promoting behaviors. Nurses can use this model to clarify patients' perceptions of risk and why they behave in a way that is harmful; this enables nurses to apply strategies that influence patients to make healthy lifestyle changes. Amendments to the model were made as late as 1988 to incorporate emerging evidence within the field of psychology about the role of in decision-making and behavior. The health belief model was developed in the 1950s by social psychologists at the and remains one of the best known and most widely used theories in health behavior research. Cues to action are often difficult to assess, limiting research in this area. They provide a basis for investigative work on health behaviors.
They include perceptions of options available, as well as demand characteristics and aesthetic features of the environment in which given health promoting is proposed to take place. Open University Press: Ballmore: Buckingham. Are you one of them? The nursing department delivers institution-wide education for both the offenders and the correction's staff. Additionally, individuals engage in some health-related behaviors for reasons unrelated to health e. It was originally developed in the 1950s, and updated in the 1980s. Visualizing the Health Belief Model The health belief model diagram in this lesson is depicted in the context of a person.
The health belief model predicts that individuals who perceive that they are susceptible to a particular health problem will engage in behaviors to reduce their risk of developing the health problem. Compliance with a medical regimen for asthma: a test of the health belief model, Public Health Reports, 93, 268-77. Nursing Application of the Model Nurses typically spend more time with patients than any other practice team member, and they are key providers of patient-centered resources and education. Instrument development for health belief model constructs, Advances in Nursing Science, 6, 73-85. In turn, increased feelings of efficacy can generate further positive affect. The model was originally developed in order to explain engagement in one-time health-related behaviors such as being screened for cancer or receiving an immunization.
The health belief model suggests that modifying variables affect health-related behaviors indirectly by affecting perceived seriousness, susceptibility, benefits, and barriers. Cues to action are external events that prompt a desire to make a health change. Therefore, different operationalizations of the theoretical constructs may not be strictly comparable across studies. The set of variables for behavior specific knowledge and affect have important motivational significance. In the diagram, the person on the left doubts there is risk and is thus not likely to take action. For example, individuals who believe that wearing sunscreen prevents skin cancer are more likely to wear sunscreen than individuals who believe that wearing sunscreen will not prevent the occurrence of skin cancer. Individuals who believe they are at low risk of developing an illness are more likely to engage in unhealthy, or risky, behaviors.
Interpersonal influences are cognition-concerning behaviors, beliefs, or attitudes of the others. A behavioral health theory is a combination of knowledge, opinion, and actions taken by an individual or group in reference to their health. Perceived benefits of action are the anticipated positive outcomes that will occur from health behavior. Annual Review of Public Health. Furthermore, the health belief model does not specify how constructs of the model interact with one another.
Research assessing the contribution of cues to action in predicting health-related behaviors is limited. A Health Belief Model — Social Learning Theory Approach to Adolescents' Fertility Control: Findings from a Controlled Field Trial. Individuals with low perceived susceptibility may deny that they are at risk for contracting a particular illness. They can be anything from a blood pressure van being present at a health fair, to seeing a condom poster on a train, to having a relative die of cancer. The Health Belief Model and Personal Health Behavior. Think about those who never use sunscreen or have a family history of cancer yet refuse screening tests. Interventions based on the health belief model may aim to increase perceived susceptibility to and perceived seriousness of a health condition by providing education about prevalence and incidence of disease, individualized estimates of risk, and information about the consequences of disease e.
The review reports that empirical support for the health belief model is particularly notable given the diverse populations, health conditions, and health-related behaviors examined and the various study designs and assessment strategies used to evaluate the model. The potential for serious illness or death may make the temporary inconvenience or discomfort seem less significant, and the individual may be more likely to move from inaction to action. However, if a person determines that the barriers to changing their behaviors are greater than the possible benefits, they will not follow through. Also, be sure to help the patient recognize why the benefits outweigh the barriers. The health belief model has been applied to predict a wide variety of health-related behaviors such as being screened for the early detection of asymptomatic diseases and receiving immunizations.
Remember that the preceding steps will help patients understand and adhere to healthy behaviors, and ultimately, achieve better outcomes. Imagine you have the perfect plan to help a patient with chronic bronchitis quit smoking. Changing your health behaviors can cost effort, money, and time. Perceived Barriers Perceived benefits vs. It hoped to explain the impact of an individual's perception and attitude toward a disease and how those perceptions and attitudes impacted their health-related decision-making. Learn how nurses can use the health belief model with their patients. If an individual believes that a particular action will reduce susceptibility to a health problem or decrease its seriousness, then he or she is likely to engage in that behavior regardless of objective facts regarding the effectiveness of the action.
Perceived seriousness encompasses beliefs about the disease itself e. Cues to action can be internal or external. What Is the Health Belief Model? Consider your patients who are overweight and diabetic or those who have high blood pressure and eat processed convenience foods high in sodium. Primary sources of interpersonal influences are families, peers, and healthcare providers. These cues to action may influence the person to change an unhealthy behavior into a healthy one.