Here are the basic accounting principles and concepts: 1. But this concept also suffers from one limitation. Not following the consistency principle means that a business could continually jump between different accounting treatments of its transactions that makes its long-term financial results extremely difficult to discern. The various accounting concepts are as follows: 1. The accountant is interested to record transactions relating to business only.
Well look no more; you came to the right place. Under this concept, every transaction has got a two-fold aspect— i yielding to or receiving of benefit, and ii giving of that benefit. We book the value of assets on the cost basis, not on the net realizable value or market value of the assets based on the assumption that a business unit is a going concern. A correct statement of income requires a distinction between past, present and future expenditures. Since there is some degree of continuity of every entity and no one can accurately predict the future of an entity due to the possibility of cessation of its life, it is more convenient to treat the same as a going concern.
For example, in case of a sole proprietorship business or partnership business, though the sole proprietor or partners are not considered as separate entities in the eyes of law, but for accounting purposes they will be considered as separate entities. Cost Concept It is a very important concept based on the Going Concern Concept. Accrual Concept As stated above in the matching concept, the revenue generated in the accounting period is considered and the expenditure related to the accounting period is also considered. Whenever expenses are matched against the revenue they helped to generate, then managers, investors, and owners will be able to make intelligent decisions regarding the company's progress and future. The true and fair view is applied in ensuring and assessing whether accounts do indeed portray accurately the business' activities.
Balance Sheet Equation Concept 10. Verifiable and Objective Evidence Concept : It expresses that accounting data are subject to verification by independent experts, i. Cash Basis Accounting, and Accounting Standards Codification. That is, in other words, a fact or an event which cannot be expressed in terms of money cannot be recorded in the books of accounts. Separate Entity This convention seeks to ensure that private transactions and matters relating to the owners of a business are segregated from transactions that relate to the business. The business gets asset cash of Rs. Accounting is a great career that needs a good amount of education, a license, and has a vast amount of possibilities and temptations.
The Motley Fool has a. For example, the certifications required to become one, the history of forensic accounting and many different types of crimes that forensic accounts handle. Accounting period concept: According to this concept, the life of the business is divided into appropriate segments for studying the results shown by the business after each segment. Materiality Concept Definition According to this concept, when recording transactions, the accountant should consider whether disclosure and non-disclosure of such transaction will affect the decisions of persons reading the accounts. The origin of this concept can be traced from this stewardship function. In short, when an order is simply received from a customer, it does not mean that the revenue is earned or realised. Cash basis versus accrual basis accounting.
Realisation Concept : According to this concept, revenue is considered as earned on the date when it is realised. Similar to a debit account having a debit balance, a contra asset account has a credit. It also stresses more emphasis on the earning capacity in judging the overall performance of the business. Accountants in these cases may use different procedures in their managerial accounting because of the variety of rules that apply to different businesses and their operations. For example, if Ram starts business with cash Rs. With the passage of time, the market value of fixed assets like land and buildings vary greatly from their cost.
According to this principle, all financial transitions have two effects. Accounts are prepare to give information about the business and not about those who own it. Making profit is the most important objective that keeps the proprietor engaged in business activities. Let's assume that the group has a concert coming up in New York on January 15, 2016. Cost Concept: This concept is closely related to the going concern concept. In the case of joint stock company, the business has a separate legal entity than the shareholders.
This concept especially prevents accountants from manipulating the results of a business by simply changing the accounting policies Implication The same depreciation method is applied for similar items in the same period and from one period to another. Money Measurement Concept Monetary Expression : In accounting, all transactions are expressed and interpreted in terms of money. Accounting Period Concept: An accounting period is the interval of time at the end of which the income statement and financial position statement balance sheet are prepared to know the results and resources of the business. Historical Cost All business resources acquired should be valued and recorded based on the actual cash equivalent or original cost of acquisition, not the prevailing market value or future value. Accounting period may be monthly, quarterly or annually.
So, for each and every debit there must be a corresponding credit, and vice versa. Therefore, total costs and expenses pertaining to the generation of such revenue together with the expenses and cost incurred for the specific accounting period are matched against the revenue for the said period. Financial statements are prepared under the Accruals Concept of accounting which requires that income and expense must be recognized in the accounting periods to which they relate rather than on cash basis. Otherwise, the banker will not provide loans, the supplier will not supply goods or services, the employees will not work properly, and the method of recording the transaction will change altogether. Capital expenditure comes in the category of those expenses, the benefit of which will be utilized in the next coming accounting periods as well.